Papers on Enclaves and Exclaves

Vinokurov, Evgeny (2007), A Theory of Enclaves, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Attempting to provide a fully-fledged theory of enclaves and exclaves, A Theory of Enclaves covers a wide scope of regions and territories throughout the world and satisfies the need for a systematic view on enclaves. This book covers 282 enclaves, with a combined population total of approximately three million, but the importance of enclaves is much higher because of their specific status and issues raised for both the mainland states and the surrounding states: Gibraltar was disproportionately large for British-Spanish relations throughout the last three centuries, Kaliningrad managed to cause a major crisis in the EU-Russian relations in 2002-03, Tiny Ceuta and Melilla have caused tensions in Spanish-Moroccan relations for more than three centuries and have recently become visible as conflict points at the EU level, German Buesingen was subject to several complex international treaties between Germany and Switzerland.

Rather than viewing each enclave as a unique case, or even as an anomaly, A Theory of Enclaves provides a systematic investigation of enclave-related political and economic issues. Rich on maps and illustrations, A Theory of Enclaves strives to comprise three facets of enclaves' existence: political, economic, and social life.

Download Chapter 1 "Why Study Enclaves?" (8 p.)
Download Chapter 2 "What Are Enclaves and Exclaves?" (46 p.)
Download supplementary materials to the book (tables, graphs, photos) (26 p.)

The book can be ordered at or

Vinokurov, Evgeny (2007), Teoriya Anklavov [A Theory of Enclaves]. Kaliningrad: Terra Baltica. In Russian.

Download the complete book
Download the supplementary materials to the book (tables, graphs, photos)

All older papers, including the 2005 version of the"Theory of Enclaves", "Establishment of Corridors in the Context of an Exclave-Mainland Transit Problem", "Enclaves and Exclaves of the World", "Toward a  Theory of Enclaves: Classification and General Characteristics" (in Russian, published in Baltic Scientific Herald 2002/1), the XLS supplementary tables, and "Enclaves of the World - Experience of the Last Decades" (in Russian, published in Mirovaya Ekonomika i Mezhdunarodnye Otnosheniya), are taken offline.